Ambrosio Spinola, commander in the Spanish Netherlands, was preparing to restart hostilities, which required securing the Spanish Road. Frederick's son Charles Louis regained the Lower Palatinate and became the eighth Imperial elector, although Bavaria kept the Upper Palatinate and its electoral vote. The United Netherlands was recognized as an independent republic. They ranged in size and importance from the seven Prince-electors who voted for the Holy Roman Emperor, down to Prince-bishoprics and City-states, such as Hamburg. [34], By mid-June, the Bohemian army under Thurn was outside Vienna; Mansfeld's defeat by Spanish-Imperial forces at Sablat forced him to return to Prague, but Ferdinand's position continued to worsen. The series of protracted religious-dynastic wars that afflicted the Holy Roman Empire and most western European states from 1618 to 1648. The emperor's prerogatives had never been clearly defined; a ruler who knew how to exploit his considerable informal powers of patronage could enjoy a great deal of authority, but a weak monarch could easily be reduced to a mere figurehead. When Ferdinand was elected king of Bohemia in 1617, he gained control of its electoral vote; however, his conservative Catholicism made him unpopular with the largely Protestant Bohemian nobility, who were also concerned at the erosion of their rights. The range of confessions in Germany, 1650, as a result of the Thirty Years' War. The Thirty years' War in the Movies by Burgwaechterchen | created - 27 Nov 2010 | updated - 17 Apr 2017 | Public No Ranking,just listing..If the film is not directly connected to the 30 year's war,I at least try to concentrate on the times of the early 17th century. Sweden had control of the Baltic. 30 Years War Essay 1416 Words 6 Pages The four stages of the Thirty Years' War, which was fought mostly in the Holy Roman Empire (modern Germany), involved nearly all of the major powers of Europe, and was a war that used religion as a cover-up for politics. In this strategy game, players will take control of one of the opposing sides, Protestants or Catholics, and fight for the control of the Empire. [90] Combined with the diversion of Imperial resources caused by Swedish intervention in 1630, this led to the Treaty of Cherasco in June 1631. Thirty years' war definition, the war, often regarded as a series of wars (1618–48), in central Europe, initially involving a conflict between German Protestants and Catholics and later including political rivalries with France, Sweden, and Denmark opposing the Holy Roman Empire and Spain. France was now the chief Western power. [117] The collapse of local government created landless peasants, who banded together to protect themselves from the soldiers of both sides, and led to widespread rebellions in Upper Austria, Bavaria and Brandenburg. [107] Well into the 19th century, the leading cause of mortality even for soldiers was disease; of an estimated 600,000 military deaths between 1618 and 1648, only 200,000 were killed in combat. And it was this upheaval – not military conflict per se – that took the heaviest human toll. [69], After Tilly's death, Ferdinand turned once again to Wallenstein; knowing Gustavus was over extended, he marched into Franconia and established himself at Fürth, threatening the Swedish supply chain. The Thirty Years War ravaged whole countries, as the first truly national armies marched over Europe. – Also known as the War of the Triple Alliance Ten Years' War: 241,000+ 1868–1878 Spain vs. Cuba Cuba – Also known as the Great War Conquest of the Desert: 30,000–35,000 1870s–1884 Argentina vs. Mapuche people Patagonia Aceh War: 97,000–107,000 1873–1914 Kingdom of the Netherlands vs. Aceh Sultanate Indonesia [129], Arguably, France gained more from the Thirty Years' War than any other power; by 1648, most of Richelieu's objectives had been achieved. This made it easier to levy national armies of significant size, loyal to their state and its leader; one lesson learned from Wallenstein and the Swedish invasion was the need for their own permanent armies, and Germany as a whole became a far more militarised society. Brandenburg-Prussia received Farther Pomerania, and the bishoprics of Magdeburg, Halberstadt, Kammin, and Minden. While flight may have saved lives in the short-term, in the long run it often proved catastrophic. Ferdinand and his advisors were greatly concerned by the brutal nature of the Würzburg and Bamberg trials, fearing they would discredit the Counter-Reformation, and active persecution largely ended by 1630. Eventually, however, it came to involve political control and territory as well. [23], As a result, when the Imperial Diet opened in February 1608, the Protestants demanded formal confirmation of the Augsburg settlement, which was especially significant for Calvinists like Frederick IV, Elector Palatine who had not been included. With the exception of Christian of Anhalt, his advisors urged him to reject it, as did the Dutch, the Duke of Savoy, and his father-in-law James. Denmark was a Lutheran/Protestant country at the time of the 30 Years' War. The war grew ever more muddled with the Dutch-Spanish war folded in as well. 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