"First article of the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia. [99], Spain's Constitutional Court assessed the disputed articles and on 28 June 2010, issued its judgment on the principal allegation of unconstitutionality presented by the People's Party in 2006. Since the restoration of the Generalitat on the return of democracy in Spain, the presidents of Catalonia have been Josep Tarradellas (1977–1980, president in exile since 1954), Jordi Pujol (1980–2003), Pasqual Maragall (2003–2006), José Montilla (2006–2010), Artur Mas (2010–2016), Carles Puigdemont (2016–2017) and, after the imposition of direct rule from Madrid, Quim Torra (2018–). The fight between the houses of Bourbon and Habsburg for the Spanish Crown split Spain and Europe. During the 20th century, avant-garde movements developed, initiated by the Generation of '14 (called Noucentisme in Catalonia), represented by Eugeni d'Ors, Joan Salvat-Papasseit, Josep Carner, Carles Riba, J.V. It was adopted by the descendants of Ramon Berenguer IV, … At the beginning of the nineteenth, century Catalonia was severely affected by the Napoleonic Wars. In 1992, Barcelona hosted the Summer Olympic Games. The hydrographic network can be divided in two sectors, an occidental slope or Ebro river slope and one oriental slope constituted by minor rivers that flow to the Mediterranean along the Catalan coast. The climate of Catalonia is diverse. [109] On 14 July 2010 the Catalan Parliament approved the creation of the functional area of the Penedès.[110]. The difference is due to the big contribution of the Ebro river, from which the Segre is an important tributary. They had pre-eminence over the … [136] In 2017, Catalonia had 1,194,497 foreign residents (15.9% of the total population) with non-Spanish ID cards, without including those who acquired the Spanish citizenship. Location. Catalonia Born: will return on a lot of counts.... - See 2,288 traveler reviews, 418 candid photos, and great deals for Catalonia Born at Tripadvisor. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the area was conquered by the Visigoths and was ruled as part of the Visigothic Kingdom for almost two and a half centuries. Given the topography most lines radiate from Barcelona. The Catalan branch of the People's Party has a more ambiguous position on the issue: on one hand, it demands a bilingual Catalan–Spanish education and a more balanced language policy that would defend Catalan without favoring it over Spanish,[174] whereas on the other hand, a few local PP politicians have supported in their municipalities measures privileging Catalan over Spanish[175] and it has defended some aspects of the official language policies, sometimes against the positions of its colleagues from other parts of Spain.[176]. By Judit Alonso Published on : 2020/12/31 . (1911). In 1258, by means of the Treaty of Corbeil, James I of Aragon King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona, king of Mallorca and of Valencia, renounced his family rights and dominions in Occitania and recognised the king of France as heir of the Carolingian Dynasty. Performances of opera, mostly imported from Italy, began in the 18th century, but some native operas were written as well, including the ones by Domènec Terradellas, Carles Baguer, Ramon Carles, Isaac Albéniz and Enric Granados. Lowlands alternate with the Costal and Pre-Costal Ranges. Catalonia is amongst the List of country subdivisions by GDP over 100 billion US dollars and is a member of the Four Motors for Europe organisation. 1. With the establishment of the Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939), the Generalitat was restored as a Catalan autonomous government. It also has many international synchronized swimming champions. It then came under Visigothic rule after the collapse of the western part of the Roman Empire. 71 | Senate Office of International Relations", Generalitat de Catalunya (Government of Catalonia), White Paper on the National Transition of Catalonia, Initiation of the Process of Independence, Law on the Referendum on Self-determination, Association of Municipalities for Independence, Committees for the Defense of the Republic, Republican Left of Catalonia–Catalonia Yes, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Catalonia&oldid=1000634012, NUTS 2 statistical regions of the European Union, Regions of Europe with multiple official languages, States and territories established in 1932, States and territories established in 1979, Articles with dead external links from January 2014, Articles with Catalan-language sources (ca), Articles with dead external links from August 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles that may be too long from January 2020, Pages using infobox settlement with bad settlement type, Articles containing Catalan-language text, Articles containing Occitan (post 1500)-language text, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from January 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2020, Articles with incomplete citations from October 2018, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from September 2019, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Miguel Vidal, finding serious shortcomings with earlier proposals (such as that an original -, The Pyrenees: mountainous formation that connects the Iberian Peninsula with the. [173], The Catalan language policy has been challenged by some political parties in the Catalan Parliament. Worn first by Josep Maria Forn or Bigas Luna, then by Marc Recha, Jaime Rosales and Albert Serra, this genre has achieved some international recognition. [37], Over the next few centuries, the Principality of Catalonia was generally on the losing side of a series of wars that led steadily to an increased centralization of power in Spain. The defeat of the Republican army in the Battle of the Ebro led in 1938 and 1939 to the occupation of Catalonia by Franco's forces. High-speed rail (AVE) services from Madrid currently reach Lleida, Tarragona and Barcelona. In 1832 it was inaugurated in Barcelona the factory Bonaplata, the first of the country which worked with steam engine. The spirit of the … However, the power of the other counts in Catalonia strengthened as Barcelona´s central authority weakened after the death of Comte … It snows frequently in the Pyrenees, and it occasionally snows at lower altitudes, even by the coastline. Noucentisme. The inland part (including the Lleida province and the inner part of Barcelona province) show a mostly Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa). Various local food recipes have been described in documents dating from the fifteenth century. Origin of the flag of Catalonia. Charles II had chosen Philip V of Spain from the French House of Bourbon. The current collection of the Museu Diocesà d'Urgell (Diocesan Museum of Urgell) is a reference point of sacred art in which the, Els museus de Tarragona i les Terres de l'Ebre, Giravolt. This is the official flag of Catalonia. Franco's regime banned the use of Catalan in government-run institutions and during public events, and also the Catalan institutions of self-government were abolished. At this time, though united by marriage, the Crowns of Castile and Aragon maintained distinct territories, each keeping its own traditional institutions, parliaments, laws and currency. [186], Olympic Park of Montjuïc, Barcelona. It is situated on the northeastern corner of Iberian Peninsula and is voted as an ethnic group by its statute of autonomy. In the field of architectural rationalism, which turned especially relevant in Catalonia during the Republican era (1931-1939) highlighting Josep Lluís Sert and Josep Torres i Clavé, members of the GATCPAC and, in contemporany architecture, Ricardo Bofill and Enric Miralles. The counts of Barcelona were Frankish vassals nominated by the emperor and then the king of France, to whom they were feudatories (801–987). In 1808, it was occupied by French troops; the resistance against the occupation eventually developed into the Peninsular War. Search terms . Due to the intense immigration which Spain in general and Catalonia in particular experienced in the first decade of the 21st century, many foreign languages are spoken in various cultural communities in Catalonia, of which Rif-Berber,[164] Moroccan Arabic, Romanian[165] and Urdu are the most common ones. The territor y was supposed to protect the French Empire from the Islamic invasions. In the recent years they have played with Bulgaria, Argentina, Brazil, Basque Country, Colombia, Nigeria, Cape Verde and Tunisia. In the first third of the 20th century, Catalonia gained and lost varying degrees of autonomy several times. Romanticism and Industrialization. FANDOM. Upload media: Instance of: position, noble title: Subclass of: head of state, count: Location: Crown of Aragon : Applies to jurisdiction: County of Barcelona: Authority control Q38673587. Count of Cervera Principality of Catalonia Nobility Coat of arms, crown, rectangle, logo, arm png Many savings banks were based in Catalonia before the independence referendum of 2017, with 10 of the 46 Spanish savings banks having headquarters in the region at that time. As such, Catalan is the language of normal and preferential use in Public Administration bodies and in the public media of Catalonia and is also the language of normal use for teaching and learning in the education system.” (Generalitat de Catalunya, 2014) The financial changes in the statute gave Catalonia more revenue from central taxes and the central government will invest more money in infrastructure … The main east coast line runs through the province connecting with the SNCF (French Railways) at Portbou on the coast. Both play in La Liga. Several directors have gained worldwide renown thanks to this genre, starting with Jaume Balagueró and his series REC (co-directed with Valencian Paco Plaza), Juan Antonio Bayona and El Orfanato or Jaume Collet-Serra with Orphan, Unknown and Non-Stop. Catalan actors have shot for Spanish and international productions, such as Sergi López. Provincias", "Población extranjera por Nacionalidad, comunidades, Sexo y Año", "Baròmetre sobre la religiositat i sobre la gestió de la seva diversitat 2016", Quick data from the 2016 barometer of Catalonia, "Baròmetre sobre la religiositat i sobre la gestió de la seva diversitat", Quick data from the 2014 barometer of Catalonia, "Idescat. Since 1980 they have been under the command of the Generalitat, and since 1994 they have expanded in number in order to replace the national Civil Guard and National Police Corps, which report directly to the Homeland Department of Spain. Apply. The world-renowned Catalan architects of this style are Antoni Gaudí, Lluís Domènech i Montaner and Josep Puig i Cadafalch. Roussillon was lost to France by the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659).[39]. In the Spanish Constitution of 1978 Catalonia, along with the Basque Country and Galicia, was defined as a "nationality". Traditionally differentiated the Axial Pyrenees (the main part) and the Pre-Pyrenees (southern from the Axial) which are mountainous formations parallel to the main mountain ranges but with lower altitudes, less steep and a different geological formation. The expansion was accompanied by a great development of the Catalan trade, creating an extensive trade network across the Mediterranean which competed with those of the maritime republics of Genoa and Venice. Tarraco (modern Tarragona) was one of the most important Roman cities in Hispania and the capital of the province of Tarraconensis. 266,938 Pages. In Catalonia there is a wide variety of local and comarcal media. The port of Barcelona (owned and operated by Puertos del Estado [es], a Spanish Government entity) is an industrial, commercial and tourist port of worldwide importance. Jean Varin or Warin was a French sculptor and engraver who made important innovations in the process of minting coins. Renaissance. Through the Renaissance there were authors such as Pere Albert Vila, Joan Brudieu or the two Mateu Fletxa ("The Old" and "The Young"). [134], Immigrants from other countries settled in Catalonia since the 1990s;[135] a large percentage comes from Africa, Latin America and Eastern Europe, and smaller numbers from Asia and Southern Europe, often settling in urban centers such as Barcelona and industrial areas. One of the most deeply-rooted and curious Christmas traditions is the popular figure of the Tió de Nadal, consisting of an (often hollow) log with a face painted on it and often two little front legs appended, usually wearing a Catalan hat and scarf. Modernism. The ban, which went into effect on 1 January 2012, had originated in a popular petition supported by over 180,000 signatures.[180]. By virtue of descent from his maternal grandparents, Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile, in 1516 Charles I of Spain became the first king to rule the Crowns of Castile and Aragon simultaneously by his own right. This decision sparked demonstrations around Catalonia.[70]. Navarre, the Basque Country and Catalonia are the Spanish communities with the highest degree of autonomy in terms of law enforcement. The last ones were promulgated by the Corts of 1705. Catalonia monopolized trade in the western Mediterranean in the 13th and 14th centuries, and Catalan interests dominated the union with Aragon until 1410, when the male line of the counts of Barcelona became extinct. Catalonia). Since then they have both used the same arms . Powers (articles 110–173) of the 2006 Statute", "Centrifugal Spain: Umbrage in Catalonia", "CEO Public Opinion Poll covering, among others, nationalist opinions", "Diagnóstic de Percepcions Catalunya - Espanya", "El 42% de los catalanes dice que quiere que Cataluña sea independiente", "El apoyo a la independencia remite y cae al 40%", "MAPA - ¿Cómo se distribuye el voto independentista en Catalunya? Extranjeros con tarjeta de residencia. This is every important in Catalonia and the Catalan-speaking areas, and families go to watch major parades on the eve of the Epiphany, where they can greet the kings and watch them pass by in pomp and circumstance, on floats and preceded and followed by pages, musicians, dancers, etc.

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