Richard Plantagenet, third duke of York (1411-1460), was a controversial figure who played a major part in the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses, although his motives for opposing the Court party are unclear. (1913). Before that, Richard was much more concerned, at least publicly, with being seen as a figure of reform and the man who could rid the government of corrupt and incompetent officials. He wished to remove rivals, certainly, and possibly have himself chosen as Henry’s heir, but not to replace the king while he lived. Richard, Duke of York, is often mentioned only as a prelude to histories of his famous sons, Edward IV and Richard III. Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, was one of the most formidable figures of the 15th century. There was even a rebellion by commoners and local dignitaries led by the former soldier Jack Cade in 1450 CE which called for the removal of certain corrupt and inept court officials, a reduction in taxes, and a return to law and order in the southeast. Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, 8th Earl of Ulster, 6th Earl of March, 4th Earl of Cambridge, was born 20 September 1411 to Richard of Conisburgh, 1st Earl of Cambridge (c1376-1415) and Anne de Mortimer (1390-1411) and died 30 December 1460 at theBattle of Wakefield of killed in action. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. Richard, Duke of York, is often mentioned only as a prelude to histories of his famous sons, Edward IV and Richard III. "Richard, Duke of York." Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York (22 September 1411 – 30 December 1460), also named Richard Plantagenet, was a leading English magnate, a great-grandson of King Edward III through his father, and a great-great-great-grandson of the same king through his mother.wikipediawikipedia Cartwright, Mark. From this time on, it became a tradition for the second son of the English sovereign to be Duke of York. York, Richard, duke of, 1411–60, English nobleman, claimant to the throne. Warbeck had denied being either of the two but eventually agreed to accept ‘the honour as a member of the Royal House of York’. [9], As son of the king, Richard was granted use of the arms of the kingdom, differentiated by a label argent, on the first point a canton gules.[10]. A priest, now generally believed to have been Robert Stillington, the Bishop of Bath and Wells, testified that Edward IV had agreed to marry Lady Eleanor Talbot in 1461. [2] Thomas More wrote that the princes were smothered to death with their pillows, and his account forms the basis of William Shakespeare's play Richard III, in which Tyrrell suborns Forrest and Dighton to murder the princes on Richard's orders. In 1448 he was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, a convenient means of keeping him out of the country. Henry V was of the house of Lancaster so one might think that Richard, of the house of York, already had a keen motive to bring about the fall of the Lancastrians. As a consequence, the duke marched south and met Somerset and a small force of the king's at the Battle of St. Albans, Hertfordshire, on 22 May 1455 CE. Both men, Richard and Somerset, were now intent on all-out warfare to settle their differences. ), claimant to the English throne whose attempts to gain power helped precipitate the Wars of the Roses (1455–85) between the houses of Lancaster and York; he controlled the government for brief periods during the first five years of this struggle. Richard might have been the most powerful man in England but he still wanted more, and he tried to persuade the king to nominate him as the official heir to the throne (this was before Henry had a son of his own). Even if the rebellion fizzled out after causing much destruction in London, a call for change was in the air and Richard, although not in any way involved in Cade’s movement, came to represent the hopes of those who wanted Henry ousted and to settle old scores with their rivals. [3] In the period before the boys' disappearance, Edward was regularly being visited by a doctor; historian David Baldwin extrapolates that contemporaries may have believed Edward had died either of an illness or as the result of attempts to cure him. There were, too, allegations of corruption at court, a lack of good government at a local level, and upset over Henry’s intervention in disputes between various nobles. [7], In 1486 Richard of Shrewsbury's eldest sister Elizabeth married Henry VII, thereby uniting the Houses of York and Lancaster. The standard view of historians, though, is that despite this and Richard’s own royal credentials, it was not until Richard was exiled in 1459 CE that he really sought to overthrow his king, Henry VI. (65). Adjoining this was another vault, which was found to contain the coffins of two children. Thus his brother Edward, Prince of Wales, became King of England and was acclaimed as such, and Richard his Heir Presumptive. He confessed to being an impostor, and was later executed following an attempt to escape. The Duke of York fled to Ireland while Parliament, the November 1459 CE ‘Parliament of Devils’, identified him as a traitor, passed the death sentence on him and disinherited his heirs. The death of Humphrey Duke of Gloucester in 1447, made Richard of York the first Prince of the Blood. Cite This Work "Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, 6th Earl of March, 4th Earl of Cambridge, and 7th Earl of Ulster, conventionally called Richard of York (21 September 1411 – 30 December 1460) was a leading English magnate, great-grandson of King Edward III. Edward, the Duke of York’s son, backed by the Earl of Warwick, was promoted as a replacement to his father and to King Henry. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Richard_Duke_of_York/. He explains this powerful noble's close relationship with the Mortimer family and how this further emboldened him to strive for the English Throne. Edward V & Richard Duke of York Edward was born at Westminster on 4th November 1470, while his father Edward IV was in exile and his mother Elizabeth (Woodville) was taking Sanctuary within the Abbey precincts. Richard married Cecily Neville (1415-1495 CE), the daughter of the Earl of Westmorland, c. 1429 CE. In 1425 CE Richard inherited another uncle’s estates and so, still only 14, he became one of the richest men in England. [8], In 1491 in Cork, Perkin Warbeck, a young man of Flemish origin was proclaimed by a variety of Yorkist supporters led by the Irish city's former Mayor John Atwater to be Richard. On 15 Jan­u­ary 1478, in St Stephen's Chapel, West­min­ster, when he was about 4 years old, he mar­ried the 5-year-old Anne de Mow­bray, 8th Count­ess of Nor­folk, who had in­her­ited the vast Mow­bray es­tates in 1476. He claimed to have escaped from the Tower and spent the intervening years on the run. Richard, 3rd Duke of York (21 Sep 1411 – 30 Dec 1460), was a leading English magnate and great-grandson of Edward III. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Edward IV was restored to the throne soon after and died on 9th April 1483. In January 1483 Parliament passed an act that gave the Mowbray estates to Richard, Duke of York and Norfolk, for his lifetime, and at his death to his heirs, if he had any. Instead of exercising patience and cultivating friendships, he preferred confrontation and challenge. 1.Chapter Records XXIII to XXVI, The Chapter Library, St. George's Chapel, However, this time the duke only kept his job for three months as Queen Margaret now took a greater role in her husband’s government. 3.Vetusta Monumenta, Volume III, page 4 (1789). We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Written by Mark Cartwright, published on 15 February 2020 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. This support included Margaret of York, the aunt of the real Richard. This tomb was inscribed with the names of two of Edward IV's children: George, Duke of Bedford, who had died at the age of two; and Mary of York who had died at the age of 14. Known as "the Rose of Raby", because she was born at Raby Castle in Durham, and "Proud Cis", because of her pride and a temper that went with it, although she was also known for her piety. Bones reportedly belonging to two children were discovered in 1674 by workmen rebuilding a stairway in the Tower. The message was that Henry was neglecting the necessities of everyday government and being manipulated by ‘evil councillors’. Tudor History was quick to blame his uncle, Richard. Last modified February 15, 2020. Richard, Duke of York. Richard was a young nobleman with royal blood, Vast Estates & powerful family connections. Following his capture after a failed invasion of England in 1497, Warbeck was held in the Tower of London. He was cre­ated Earl of Not­ting­ham on 12 June 1476. He was descended from Edward III through his father, Richard, earl of Cambridge, grandson of that king, and also through his mother, Anne Mortimer, great-granddaughter of Lionel, duke … He inherited great estates and served in various offices in France at the end of the Hundred Years War. Subsequent re-evaluations of Richard III have questioned his guilt, beginning with William Cornwallis early in the 17th century. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Richard, Duke of York, again became Protector of the Realm and the powerful position of Captain of Calais was given to the Earl of Warwick. At the time of her birth, her family was of middle rank in the English social hierarchy. Margaret hated Richard so intensely she even led an army against the duke, defeating him at his headquarters in Ludlow at the Battle of Ludford Bridge on 12 October 1459 CE. Duke of York (Richard) is King Edward’s second son. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Mark is a history writer based in Italy. Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge, "The White Queen – What happened to the Princes in the Tower? The Lord Protector also reduced the expenditure of the royal household and restored law and order in the troublesome north of England. 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